I researched this thesis at University College, London between 2004 and 2008, and was awarded my PhD in the summer of 2009.

As I do not intend to pursue an academic career, I am unlikely to publish scholarly articles from my PhD thesis or to convert the whole text into a book. Like most academic research, this work is not likely to be of interest to a great many people. It may, however, be useful to those comics scholars working in a similar field, and with this in mind I am publishing it in full here.

It has many flaws, and there are plenty of sections that I would change if I were rewriting for publication. However, there are other projects that interest me now, and I have neither the time nor the inclination to return to this one.


In including the illustrations I am claiming fair use for the purposes of criticism and analysis. Should the copyright owners request that the images be removed, I will have to blank them out.

All written material featured on this site is copyright of Emma Tinker. It may be reproduced for personal and educational use only. Where parts are quoted for the purpose of criticism and analysis, this source must be acknowledged. Commercial copying, hiring and lending are prohibited.

Emma Tinker
December 2009